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Penalty formulation

In contact analysis, normal forces $F_n$ follow from the condition that bodies cannot penetrate each other. Since we use a penalty formulation, the normal force is given by

F_n = \lambda u_n

where $u$ is the penetration and $\lambda $ is called the contact_penalty_velocity because its generates forces on the velocity unknowns. You can also impose groundflow_pressure and condif_temperature contact conditions by respectively the penalty factors contact_penalty_pressure and contact_penalty_temperature.

tochnog 2001-09-02