The hydraulic pressure head follows from the storage equation:
Primary unknown is the hydraulic pressure head groundflow_pressure. Further notation: group_groundflow_capacity; group_groundflow_permeability in -direction; space coordinate; material velocity (if present); force_element_volume (hydraulic pressure source). The equation is given for space coordinates following material velocities (if present).
The groundflow velocities, after initializing groundflow_velocity, follow from:
Total groundwater pressure
The total groundwater pressure is by example needed to calculate the total stresses in soils (total soil stress = effective soil stress + total groundwater pressure). The total groundwater pressure follows from:
where is the gravitational acceleration, and is the groundflow_density (Please notice that typically is a negative number).
Static groundwater pressure
The static pressure due to gravity is:
Dynamic groundwater pressure
The dynamic groundwater pressure follows from
If the groundwater velocity is 0 normal to an edge (say at the interface with a rock layer it is zero), then you should prescribe nothing on that edge (Tochnog will then take care of that boundary condition for you).
At the phreatic level where the groundflow meets free air the hydraulic pressure head should become . You can either set this yourself by using bounda_unknown combined with bounda_time or else demand that Tochnog automatically does it for you by activating the option groundflow_phreaticlevel_bounda.
At edges where you have some other hydraulic head you need to specify that head yourself with bounda_unknown and bounda_time records.
If gravity is not of importance, e.g. in biomechanics where the storage equation is used to model fluid transport in soft tissues, the hydraulic pressure head is equal to the total pressure, and thus is zero at edges where the water meets the free air. In this case, set to zero by using bounda_unknown combined with bounda_time.
For all printing, plotting etc. you normally get the hydraulic pressure head since it is the primary unknown solved in the storage equation. The total pressure, static pressure and dynamic pressure you can get by the post_calcul option.
To connect better to conventional naming, we rematk that the capacity depends on the porosity and water compressibility :
and for the permeability:
where is the permeability in -direction.
Look in the 'Consolidation' section of the 'Interaction analyzes and advanced analyzes' chapter in the end of this manual on how to perform consolidation analyzes (combined groundwater flow with soil stress analyzes).